Why Should I Care About Land Trends?
- Of great public health concern is the predicted rise in the incidence of Lyme disease as deer tick habitat range increases further north. Children aged 5-14 were found to be most impacted by Lyme disease in 2013 cases.
- Tick disease, along with heat stress, will also put wildlife populations, such as moose, at great risk.
- The rise in exotic species, invasive diseases, and pests (e.g., winter moth) will push out native species in the Kezar Lake watershed, leaving a much different landscape for future generations to enjoy.
- Sap collection may arrive earlier by as much as 3 weeks by 2050. Sap may actually flow longer than the typical 8 weeks, but the southern extent of sugar maples may move north.
Earlier and warmer summers will lengthen the growing season, but potentially more days above 90 degrees and variable precipitation patterns may mitigate any benefits for farming in the region. Watermelon, tomatoes, peppers, peaches, and others will benefit from higher air temperatures, but corn, wheat, and oats will have lower yields. Cabbage, potato, apples, blueberries, and winter wheat that need cool weather and cold winters will also decline. Flowering, fruit set, and seed production will decline in many species due to loss of pollinators.
Warming air temperatures and changing precipitation patterns will cause shifts in the geographic extent of native plant and tree species in the area. Many plant and tree species that thrive under cooler, drier conditions will die out, giving opportunity for southern plant and tree species to take root. This will cause a gradual change in plant and tree species composition and distribution within the watershed. For example, spruce and fir will move farther north and to higher elevations.
The sap season for maples will come earlier and sugar maples may be restricted to northern Maine. Different plant and tree species have varying levels of nutrient and water needs, a change in which will alter ecosystem cycling dynamics.
Bird counts and movements can be monitored easily and can serve as an indicator of climate change. Changes in air temperatures and precipitation amounts can shift habitat ranges and limit mating and nesting seasons. Late spring storms can kill migrating birds and cause behavioral shifts. Available food sources can change, forcing birds to find new suitable habitat.
Birds in the Kezar Lake watershed that are most likely to decline due to climate change include the Black-capped Chickadee (Maine State Bird), Evening Grosbeak, Ruffed Grouse, Wood Thrush, and all high-elevation species.
Birds that may increase or move into Maine include the Tufted Titmouse, Canada Goose, House Finch, Brown-headed Nuthatch, and Loggerhead Shrike.
Mammal, Reptile, and Amphibian Trends
Moose are an iconic mammal in Maine and a local inhabitant of the Kezar Lake watershed. This iconic species is vulnerable to heat stress and ticks that proliferate following mild winters. The observed decline of moose in Maine from disease or migration north is a clear signal of climate change.
Other impacted species include the Canada Lynx, Snowshoe hare, and American Marten, both of which reach their southern extent in Maine and may be forced further north.
Insect & Pathogen Trends
The movement of warm and wet weather pests into New England are a signal of climate change. Migratory insects will arrive earlier with earlier snowmelt and rising air temperatures, and insects only marginally-adapted to the region will begin to invade as the climate warms.
Increases in balsam woolly adelgid, spruce budworm, Beech bark disease, and winter moth will adversely affect tree populations.
Inadequate winter chill will adversely affect agriculture by increasing populations of insects and disease, including flea beetle and Steward’s wilt.
Wetter conditions will increase the likelihood of white pine needle disease caused by pathogenic fungi.
Climate change impacts human health, agriculture, and aquatic-terrestrial ecosystems through insect-borne diseases. Increasing air temperatures and precipitation will increase mosquito and tick populations. The predicted northward expansion of insect-borne pathogens, particularly tick-borne Lyme disease and mosquito-borne encephalitis, will be harmful to the health of Maine residents.
About 37% of Maine’s plant and animal species are predicted to be at high risk from climate stress, particularly as pollinators decline and variable precipitation and warmer air temperatures force more sensitive or cold-weather species and agricultural crops out of the area. Most vulnerable are species living in wetlands, alpine areas, or central/northern uplands. For example, spruce and fir will move farther north and to higher elevations, while oak-pine forests take over.
The sap season for maples will come earlier and sugar maples may be restricted to northern Maine.
Birds in the Kezar Lake watershed that are most likely to decline due to climate change include the Black-capped Chickadee (Maine State Bird), Evening Grosbeak, Ruffed Grouse, Wood Thrush, and all high-elevation species. Birds that may increase or move into Maine include the Tufted Titmouse, Canada Goose, House Finch, Brown-headed Nuthatch, and Loggerhead Shrike.
Local Land Trends Summary
Climate affects the abundance, extent, and diversity of all life on the planet – plants and trees, birds, mammals, and insects and pathogens. As the climate changes, terrestrial species will need to adapt to or move from these changing environments.
Two-thirds of Maine’s animal and plant species are predicted to be at risk from climate stress. We can watch for change in these populations as indicators of climate change. The CCO intends to collaborate with existing phenology networks across the country to better understand the periodic plant and animal life cycle events and how these are influenced by seasonal and interannual variations in climate, as well as habitat factors.
References for Land Trends
Duchesne, L., and D. Houle. “Interannual and spatial variability of maple syrup yield as related to climatic factors.” PeerJ 2 (2014):e428.
Fernandez, I.J., C.V. Schmitt, S.D. Birkel, E. Stancioff, A.J. Pershing, J.T. Kelley, J.A. Runge, G.L. Jacobson, and P.A. Mayewski. “Maine’s Climate Future: 2015 Update.” Orono, ME: University of Maine (2015): 24 pp. www.climatechange.umaine.edu/research/publications/climate-future
Fleming, D. Winter ticks raise concerns about future of Maine’s moose herd. Portland Press Herald, 14 June 2014. http://www.pressherald.com/2014/06/14/winter-ticks-raise-concerns-about-future-of-maines-moose-herd/
Leighton, P.A., J.K. Koffi, Y. Pelcat, L.R. Lindsay, and N.H. Ogden. “Predicting the speed of tick invasion: an empirical model of range expansion for the Lyme disease vector Ixodes scapularis in Canada.” Journal of Applied Ecology 49 (2012):457–464
Robinson, S. Infectious Disease Epidemiology Report: Lyme Disease Surveillance Report—Maine, 2013. Augusta, ME (2014): Maine Center for Disease Control and Prevention. http://www.maine.gov/dhhs/mecdc/infectious-disease/epi/publications/2013-lyme-surveillance-report.pdf
Rodenhouse, N. L., et al. “Potential effects of climate change on birds of the Northeast.” Mitigation and Adaptation Strategies for Global Change 13.5-6 (2008): 517-540. http://www.ucsusa.org/sites/default/files/legacy/assets/documents/global_warming/pdf/miti/rodenhouse_et_al.pdf
Skinner, C.B., A.T. DeGaetano, and B. Chabot. “Implications of twenty-first century climate change on Northeastern United States maple syrup production: impacts and adaptations.” Climatic Change 100 (2010):685–702.
Whitman, A., et al. “Climate Change and Biodiversity in Maine: Vulnerability of Habitats and Priority Species. Brunswick, ME (2013): Manomet Center for Conservation Sciences. https://www.manomet.org/sites/default/files/publications_and_tools/2013%20BwH%20Vulnerability%20Report%20CS5v7_0.pdf